GS-441524 HCl
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MedKoo CAT#: 555735

CAS#: 2378280-82-9 (HCl)

Description: GS-441524 is a potent inhibitor of feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) virus with an EC50 of 0.78 μM.. GS-441524 strongly inhibits feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) virus in tissue culture and experimental cat infection studies. GS-441524 is a molecular precursor to a pharmacologically active nucleoside triphosphate molecule. These analogs act as an alternative substrate and RNA-chain terminator of viral RNA dependent RNA polymerase. GS-441524 was non-toxic in feline cells at concentrations as high as 100 uM and effectively inhibited FIPV replication in cultured CRFK cells and in naturally infected feline peritoneal macrophages at concentrations as low as 1 uM. Note: GS-441524 is an active metabolite of Remdesivir.


Chemical Structure

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GS-441524 HCl
CAS# 2378280-82-9 (HCl)

Theoretical Analysis

MedKoo Cat#: 555735
Name: GS-441524 HCl
CAS#: 2378280-82-9 (HCl)
Chemical Formula: C12H14ClN5O4
Exact Mass: 327.0734
Molecular Weight: 327.725
Elemental Analysis: C, 43.98; H, 4.31; Cl, 10.82; N, 21.37; O, 19.53

Price and Availability

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5.0mg USD 150.0 Same day
10.0mg USD 250.0 Same day
25.0mg USD 550.0 Same day
50.0mg USD 950.0 Same day
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Related CAS #: 1191237-69-0 (free base)   2378280-82-9 (HCl)   2378280-83-0 (sulfate)    

Synonym: GS-441524 HCl; GS-441524 hydrochloride; GS-441524; GS441524; GS 441524; Remdesivir-metabolite, GS-5734-metabolite; GS5734-metabolite; GS 5734-metabolite;

IUPAC/Chemical Name: (2R,3R,4S,5R)-2-(4-aminopyrrolo[2,1-f][1,2,4]triazin-7-yl)-3,4-dihydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)tetrahydrofuran-2-carbonitrile hydrochloride

InChi Key: RUKJXQWRCFJDMA-BITRNDABSA-N

InChi Code: InChI=1S/C12H13N5O4.ClH/c13-4-12(10(20)9(19)7(3-18)21-12)8-2-1-6-11(14)15-5-16-17(6)8;/h1-2,5,7,9-10,18-20H,3H2,(H2,14,15,16);1H/t7-,9-,10-,12+;/m1./s1

SMILES Code: N#C[C@@]1(C2=CC=C3C(N)=NC=NN32)O[C@H](CO)[C@@H](O)[C@H]1O.[H]Cl

Appearance: Solid powder

Purity: >98% (or refer to the Certificate of Analysis)

Shipping Condition: Shipped under ambient temperature as non-hazardous chemical. This product is stable enough for a few weeks during ordinary shipping and time spent in Customs.

Storage Condition: Dry, dark and at 0 - 4 C for short term (days to weeks) or -20 C for long term (months to years).

Solubility: Soluble in DMSO

Shelf Life: >3 years if stored properly

Drug Formulation: This drug may be formulated in DMSO

Stock Solution Storage: 0 - 4 C for short term (days to weeks), or -20 C for long term (months).

HS Tariff Code: 2934.99.9001

Biological target: TBD
In vitro activity: The effects of GS-441524 on the replication of ASFV were further analyzed. This study added 100 μM GS-441524 to the culture medium at 0, 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 18 h after viral entry into the PAMs. As expected, addition of GS-441524 significantly inhibited the replication of ASFV and viral replication was significantly downregulated, particularly at early time points. Results in PAMs incubated with the virus for 2 h at 37 °C were recorded as 0 h results. Addition of GS-441524 at 0 and 1 h showed the most obvious inhibitory effect on viral replication, indicating that GS-441524 is more effective at early stages of replication (Fig. 4). These results indicate that GS-441524 can block the early, middle, and late stages of ASFV infection. Reference: Antiviral Res. 2021 Jul;191:105081. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33945807/
In vivo activity: GS-441524 was administered intraperitonially (IP) at 25 mg/kg 1 d prior to infection and was continued for 8 d (Figure 4a). Compared to SARS-CoV-2-infected mice treated with GS-441524, vehicle-treated mice were characterized by significant weight loss (more than 20%), severe pulmonary pathology, and high-titer viral replication in the lungs (Figure 4). Mice treated with GS-441524 demonstrated significant virus clearance in the lungs at 2 d post inoculation (dpi) and did not experience weight loss. Vehicle-treated mice demonstrated multiple injuries, including inflammatory cell infiltration ranging from the trachea, peri-alveolar space, to the interstitium. Together, these data provide the first solid demonstration of the efficacy of GS-441524 against SARS-CoV-2 in vivo. Reference: J Med Chem. 2021 Feb 1 : acs.jmedchem.0c01929. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7875336/

Preparing Stock Solutions

The following data is based on the product molecular weight 327.725 Batch specific molecular weights may vary from batch to batch due to the degree of hydration, which will affect the solvent volumes required to prepare stock solutions.

Recalculate based on batch purity %
Concentration / Solvent Volume / Mass 1 mg 5 mg 10 mg
1 mM 1.15 mL 5.76 mL 11.51 mL
5 mM 0.23 mL 1.15 mL 2.3 mL
10 mM 0.12 mL 0.58 mL 1.15 mL
50 mM 0.02 mL 0.12 mL 0.23 mL
Formulation protocol: 1. Huang Z, Gong L, Zheng Z, Gao Q, Chen X, Chen Y, Chen X, Xu R, Zheng J, Xu Z, Zhang S, Wang H, Zhang G. GS-441524 inhibits African swine fever virus infection in vitro. Antiviral Res. 2021 Jul;191:105081. doi: 10.1016/j.antiviral.2021.105081. Epub 2021 May 1. PMID: 33945807. 2. Murphy BG, Perron M, Murakami E, Bauer K, Park Y, Eckstrand C, Liepnieks M, Pedersen NC. The nucleoside analog GS-441524 strongly inhibits feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) virus in tissue culture and experimental cat infection studies. Vet Microbiol. 2018 Jun;219:226-233. doi: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2018.04.026. Epub 2018 Apr 22. PMID: 29778200; PMCID: PMC7117434. 3. Li Y, Cao L, Li G, Cong F, Li Y, Sun J, Luo Y, Chen G, Li G, Wang P, Xing F, Ji Y, Zhao J, Zhang Y, Guo D, Zhang X. Remdesivir Metabolite GS-441524 Effectively Inhibits SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Mouse Models. J Med Chem. 2021 Feb 1:acs.jmedchem.0c01929. doi: 10.1021/acs.jmedchem.0c01929. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33523654; PMCID: PMC7875336. 4. Pedersen NC, Perron M, Bannasch M, Montgomery E, Murakami E, Liepnieks M, Liu H. Efficacy and safety of the nucleoside analog GS-441524 for treatment of cats with naturally occurring feline infectious peritonitis. J Feline Med Surg. 2019 Apr;21(4):271-281. doi: 10.1177/1098612X19825701. Epub 2019 Feb 13. PMID: 30755068; PMCID: PMC6435921.
In vitro protocol: 1. Huang Z, Gong L, Zheng Z, Gao Q, Chen X, Chen Y, Chen X, Xu R, Zheng J, Xu Z, Zhang S, Wang H, Zhang G. GS-441524 inhibits African swine fever virus infection in vitro. Antiviral Res. 2021 Jul;191:105081. doi: 10.1016/j.antiviral.2021.105081. Epub 2021 May 1. PMID: 33945807. 2. Murphy BG, Perron M, Murakami E, Bauer K, Park Y, Eckstrand C, Liepnieks M, Pedersen NC. The nucleoside analog GS-441524 strongly inhibits feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) virus in tissue culture and experimental cat infection studies. Vet Microbiol. 2018 Jun;219:226-233. doi: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2018.04.026. Epub 2018 Apr 22. PMID: 29778200; PMCID: PMC7117434.
In vivo protocol: 1. Li Y, Cao L, Li G, Cong F, Li Y, Sun J, Luo Y, Chen G, Li G, Wang P, Xing F, Ji Y, Zhao J, Zhang Y, Guo D, Zhang X. Remdesivir Metabolite GS-441524 Effectively Inhibits SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Mouse Models. J Med Chem. 2021 Feb 1:acs.jmedchem.0c01929. doi: 10.1021/acs.jmedchem.0c01929. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33523654; PMCID: PMC7875336. 2. Pedersen NC, Perron M, Bannasch M, Montgomery E, Murakami E, Liepnieks M, Liu H. Efficacy and safety of the nucleoside analog GS-441524 for treatment of cats with naturally occurring feline infectious peritonitis. J Feline Med Surg. 2019 Apr;21(4):271-281. doi: 10.1177/1098612X19825701. Epub 2019 Feb 13. PMID: 30755068; PMCID: PMC6435921.

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1: Shafer RW. A SARS-CoV-2 antiviral therapy score card. Glob Health Med. 2020 Dec 31;2(6):346-349. doi: 10.35772/ghm.2020.01082. PMID: 33409413; PMCID: PMC7780285.

2: Hanafin PO, Jermain B, Hickey AJ, Kabanov AV, Kashuba AD, Sheahan TP, Rao GG. A Mechanism-based Pharmacokinetic Model of Remdesivir Leveraging Interspecies Scaling to Simulate COVID-19 Treatment in Humans. CPT Pharmacometrics Syst Pharmacol. 2020 Dec 9. doi: 10.1002/psp4.12584. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33296558.

3: Nili A, Farbod A, Neishabouri A, Mozafarihashjin M, Tavakolpour S, Mahmoudi H. Remdesivir: A beacon of hope from Ebola virus disease to COVID-19. Rev Med Virol. 2020 Nov;30(6):1-13. doi: 10.1002/rmv.2133. Epub 2020 Jul 30. PMID: 33210457.

4: Dickinson PJ. Coronavirus Infection of the Central Nervous System: Animal Models in the Time of COVID-19. Front Vet Sci. 2020 Oct 23;7:584673. doi: 10.3389/fvets.2020.584673. PMID: 33195610; PMCID: PMC7644464.

5: Jung LS, Gund TM, Narayan M. Comparison of Binding Site of Remdesivir and Its Metabolites with NSP12-NSP7-NSP8, and NSP3 of SARS CoV-2 Virus and Alternative Potential Drugs for COVID-19 Treatment. Protein J. 2020 Dec;39(6):619-630. doi: 10.1007/s10930-020-09942-9. Epub 2020 Nov 13. PMID: 33185784; PMCID: PMC7662030.

6: Davis MR, Pham CU, Cies JJ. Remdesivir and GS-441524 plasma concentrations in patients with end-stage renal disease on haemodialysis. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2020 Nov 5:dkaa472. doi: 10.1093/jac/dkaa472. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33152758.

7: Izes AM, Yu J, Norris JM, Govendir M. Current status on treatment options for feline infectious peritonitis and SARS-CoV-2 positive cats. Vet Q. 2020 Dec;40(1):322-330. doi: 10.1080/01652176.2020.1845917. PMID: 33138721; PMCID: PMC7671703.

8: Sahakijpijarn S, Moon C, Koleng JJ, Christensen DJ, Williams Iii RO. Development of Remdesivir as a Dry Powder for Inhalation by Thin Film Freezing. Pharmaceutics. 2020 Oct 22;12(11):1002. doi: 10.3390/pharmaceutics12111002. PMID: 33105618; PMCID: PMC7690377.

9: Yan VC, Muller FL. Captisol and GS-704277, but Not GS-441524, Are Credible Mediators of Remdesivir's Nephrotoxicity. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2020 Nov 17;64(12):e01920-20. doi: 10.1128/AAC.01920-20. PMID: 32988821; PMCID: PMC7674034.

10: Lê MP, Le Beller C, Le Hingrat Q, Jaquet P, Wicky PH, Bunel V, Massias L, Visseaux B, Messika J, Descamps D, Mal H, Timsit JF, Peytavin G. Reply to Yan and Muller, "Captisol and GS-704277, but Not GS-441524, Are Credible Mediators of Remdesivir's Nephrotoxicity". Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2020 Nov 17;64(12):e01937-20. doi: 10.1128/AAC.01937-20. PMID: 32988815; PMCID: PMC7674048.

11: Paltrinieri S, Giordano A, Stranieri A, Lauzi S. Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) and coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19): Are they similar? Transbound Emerg Dis. 2020 Sep 28:10.1111/tbed.13856. doi: 10.1111/tbed.13856. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 32985113; PMCID: PMC7537058.

12: Schooley RT, Carlin AF, Beadle JR, Valiaeva N, Zhang XQ, Garretson AF, Smith VI, Murphy J, Hostetler KY. Rethinking Remdesivir: Synthesis of Lipid Prodrugs that Substantially Enhance Anti-Coronavirus Activity. bioRxiv [Preprint]. 2020 Aug 27:2020.08.26.269159. doi: 10.1101/2020.08.26.269159. PMID: 32869033; PMCID: PMC7457622.

13: Lê MP, Le Hingrat Q, Jaquet P, Wicky PH, Bunel V, Massias L, Visseaux B, Messika J, Descamps D, Mal H, Timsit JF, Peytavin G. Removal of Remdesivir's Metabolite GS-441524 by Hemodialysis in a Double Lung Transplant Recipient with COVID-19. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2020 Oct 20;64(11):e01521-20. doi: 10.1128/AAC.01521-20. PMID: 32868327; PMCID: PMC7577145.

14: Pruijssers AJ, George AS, Schäfer A, Leist SR, Gralinksi LE, Dinnon KH 3rd, Yount BL, Agostini ML, Stevens LJ, Chappell JD, Lu X, Hughes TM, Gully K, Martinez DR, Brown AJ, Graham RL, Perry JK, Du Pont V, Pitts J, Ma B, Babusis D, Murakami E, Feng JY, Bilello JP, Porter DP, Cihlar T, Baric RS, Denison MR, Sheahan TP. Remdesivir Inhibits SARS-CoV-2 in Human Lung Cells and Chimeric SARS-CoV Expressing the SARS-CoV-2 RNA Polymerase in Mice. Cell Rep. 2020 Jul 21;32(3):107940. doi: 10.1016/j.celrep.2020.107940. Epub 2020 Jul 7. PMID: 32668216; PMCID: PMC7340027.

15: Yan VC, Muller FL. Advantages of the Parent Nucleoside GS-441524 over Remdesivir for Covid-19 Treatment. ACS Med Chem Lett. 2020 Jun 23;11(7):1361-1366. doi: 10.1021/acsmedchemlett.0c00316. PMID: 32665809; PMCID: PMC7315846.

16: Tempestilli M, Caputi P, Avataneo V, Notari S, Forini O, Scorzolini L, Marchioni L, Ascoli Bartoli T, Castilletti C, Lalle E, Capobianchi MR, Nicastri E, D'Avolio A, Ippolito G, Agrati C; COVID 19 INMI Study Group. Pharmacokinetics of remdesivir and GS-441524 in two critically ill patients who recovered from COVID-19. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2020 Oct 1;75(10):2977-2980. doi: 10.1093/jac/dkaa239. PMID: 32607555; PMCID: PMC7337789.

17: Humeniuk R, Mathias A, Cao H, Osinusi A, Shen G, Chng E, Ling J, Vu A, German P. Safety, Tolerability, and Pharmacokinetics of Remdesivir, An Antiviral for Treatment of COVID-19, in Healthy Subjects. Clin Transl Sci. 2020 Sep;13(5):896-906. doi: 10.1111/cts.12840. Epub 2020 Aug 5. PMID: 32589775; PMCID: PMC7361781.

18: Alvarez JC, Moine P, Etting I, Annane D, Larabi IA. Quantification of plasma remdesivir and its metabolite GS-441524 using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. Application to a Covid-19 treated patient. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2020 Jun 22;58(9):1461-1468. doi: 10.1515/cclm-2020-0612. PMID: 32573468.

19: Dickinson PJ, Bannasch M, Thomasy SM, Murthy VD, Vernau KM, Liepnieks M, Montgomery E, Knickelbein KE, Murphy B, Pedersen NC. Antiviral treatment using the adenosine nucleoside analogue GS-441524 in cats with clinically diagnosed neurological feline infectious peritonitis. J Vet Intern Med. 2020 Jul;34(4):1587-1593. doi: 10.1111/jvim.15780. Epub 2020 May 22. PMID: 32441826; PMCID: PMC7379040.

20: Avataneo V, de Nicolò A, Cusato J, Antonucci M, Manca A, Palermiti A, Waitt C, Walimbwa S, Lamorde M, di Perri G, D'Avolio A. Development and validation of a UHPLC-MS/MS method for quantification of the prodrug remdesivir and its metabolite GS-441524: a tool for clinical pharmacokinetics of SARS- CoV-2/COVID-19 and Ebola virus disease. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2020 Jul 1;75(7):1772-1777. doi: 10.1093/jac/dkaa152. PMID: 32361744; PMCID: PMC7197584.



Additional Information

1: Pedersen NC, Perron M, Bannasch M, Montgomery E, Murakami E, Liepnieks M, Liu H. Efficacy and safety of the nucleoside analog GS-441524 for treatment of cats with naturally occurring feline infectious peritonitis. J Feline Med Surg. 2019 Apr;21(4):271-281. doi: 10.1177/1098612X19825701. Epub 2019 Feb 13. PubMed PMID: 30755068; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6435921.

2: Murphy BG, Perron M, Murakami E, Bauer K, Park Y, Eckstrand C, Liepnieks M, Pedersen NC. The nucleoside analog GS-441524 strongly inhibits feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) virus in tissue culture and experimental cat infection studies. Vet Microbiol. 2018 Jun;219:226-233. doi: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2018.04.026. Epub 2018 Apr 22. PubMed PMID: 29778200.