Tiagabine hydrochloride

    WARNING: This product is for research use only, not for human or veterinary use.

MedKoo CAT#: 318867

CAS#: 145821-59-6 (HCl)

Description: Tiagabine is an anti-convulsive medication. The medication is also utilized in the treatment of panic disorder, as are a few other anticonvulsants. Tiagabine increases the level of gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA), the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system by blocking the GABA transporter and hence is classified as a GABA reuptake inhibitor.

Chemical Structure

Tiagabine hydrochloride
CAS# 145821-59-6 (HCl)

Theoretical Analysis

MedKoo Cat#: 318867
Name: Tiagabine hydrochloride
CAS#: 145821-59-6 (HCl)
Chemical Formula: C20H26ClNO2S2
Exact Mass:
Molecular Weight: 412.003
Elemental Analysis: C, 58.31; H, 6.36; Cl, 8.60; N, 3.40; O, 7.77; S, 15.56

Price and Availability

Size Price Availability Quantity
100.0mg USD 350.0 Same day
250.0mg USD 550.0 Same day
500.0mg USD 950.0 Same day
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Related CAS #: 115103-54-3 (free base)   145821-59-6 (HCl)    

Synonym: NO-329; NO329; NO 329; NNC-05-0328; NO-05-0328; Tiagabine hydrochloride; brand name Gabitril

IUPAC/Chemical Name: (R)-1-(4,4-bis(3-methylthiophen-2-yl)but-3-en-1-yl)piperidine-3-carboxylic acid hydrochloride


InChi Code: InChI=1S/C20H25NO2S2.ClH/c1-14-7-11-24-18(14)17(19-15(2)8-12-25-19)6-4-10-21-9-3-5-16(13-21)20(22)23;/h6-8,11-12,16H,3-5,9-10,13H2,1-2H3,(H,22,23);1H/t16-;/m1./s1


Appearance: Solid powder

Purity: >98% (or refer to the Certificate of Analysis)

Shipping Condition: Shipped under ambient temperature as non-hazardous chemical. This product is stable enough for a few weeks during ordinary shipping and time spent in Customs.

Storage Condition: Dry, dark and at 0 - 4 C for short term (days to weeks) or -20 C for long term (months to years).

Solubility: Soluble in DMSO, not in water

Shelf Life: >2 years if stored properly

Drug Formulation: This drug may be formulated in DMSO

Stock Solution Storage: 0 - 4 C for short term (days to weeks), or -20 C for long term (months).

HS Tariff Code: 2934.99.9001

Biological target: Tiagabine hydrochloride is a potent and selective GABA reuptake inhibitor, used as an anticonvulsant agent, with IC50s of 67, 446 and 182 nM for GABA uptake in Synaptosomes, Neurons and Glia, respectively.
In vitro activity: The effects of Tiagabine on genomic DNA of cortical rat astrocytes was studied in vitro. To evaluate DNA damage, a relatively simple technique called Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis or Comet assay was used. Tiagabine was dissolved in culture medium and added at concentration of 1, 10, 20 and 50 microg/ml on 12-day old cultured astrocytes. In presence of 1 and 10 microg/ml of Tiagabine, no DNA damage was observed after 48 h of treatment. A moderate DNA damage was instead observed for cells exposed to 20 microg/ml of antiepileptic drug. Finally, DNA fragmentation was more evident after treatment with 50 microg/ml of Tiagabine Tiagabine, at the usual recommended doses, does not appear to influence negatively the cortical rat astrocytes, inducing DNA fragmentation only at very high concentrations. Reference: Neurosci Lett. 2001 Jun 22;306(1-2):17-20. https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0304-3940(01)01836-5
In vivo activity: The neuroprotective effect of tiagabine was investigated in global ischemia in gerbils. Two groups of the animals received 15 mg/kg of tiagabine 30 min before ischemia. In the first group, the temperature was controlled at 37 degrees C from time of injection to 1 h after ischemia. In the second group, the temperature was left uncontrolled to see the hypothermic effect of tiagabine. Microdialysis was performed in CA1 region of hippocampus in half of the animals in each group to assess the levels of glutamate and gamma-amino-butyric acid (GABA). Animal behavior was also tested in 28-day groups in a radial-arm maze. Histology was done 7 and 28 days after ischemia in CA1 region of hippocampus to assess early and delayed effect of drug. A significant suppression of glutamate was noted in both groups (P<0.01). Behavioral results showed that in the temperature-uncontrolled treatment group, animals significantly reduced their working memory errors as compared to the temperature-controlled treatment group. Histology revealed a significant neuroprotection (P<0.001) in the temperature-uncontrolled treatment group. In the temperature-controlled treatment group, however, neuroprotection was insignificant (P>0.05). A third group of animals received the same dose of tiagabine 3 h after ischemia. Temperature was not controlled in this group. The animals were sacrificed after 7 days so no behavior testing was carried out. Histology showed no neuroprotection in this group (P>0.05). These results show that tiagabine offers a significant neuroprotection in global ischemia in gerbils when given 30 min before ischemia but not when given 3 h after ischemia. Reference: Brain Res. 2002 Aug 16;946(2):162-70. https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0006899302028718

Solubility Data

Solvent Max Conc. mg/mL Max Conc. mM
DMSO 53.0 128.64
Ethanol 82.0 199.02
Water 11.0 26.7

Preparing Stock Solutions

The following data is based on the product molecular weight 412.003 Batch specific molecular weights may vary from batch to batch due to the degree of hydration, which will affect the solvent volumes required to prepare stock solutions.

Recalculate based on batch purity %
Concentration / Solvent Volume / Mass 1 mg 5 mg 10 mg
1 mM 1.15 mL 5.76 mL 11.51 mL
5 mM 0.23 mL 1.15 mL 2.3 mL
10 mM 0.12 mL 0.58 mL 1.15 mL
50 mM 0.02 mL 0.12 mL 0.23 mL
In vitro protocol: 1. Cardile V, Palumbo M, Renis M, Pavone A, Maci T, Perciavalle V. Tiagabine treatment and DNA damage in rat astrocytes: an in vitro study by comet assay. Neurosci Lett. 2001 Jun 22;306(1-2):17-20. doi: 10.1016/s0304-3940(01)01836-5. PMID: 11403947.
In vivo protocol: 1. Iqbal S, Baziany A, Gordon S, Wright S, Hussain M, Miyashita H, Shuaib A, Hasan Rajput A. Neuroprotective effect of tiagabine in transient forebrain global ischemia: an in vivo microdialysis, behavioral, and histological study. Brain Res. 2002 Aug 16;946(2):162-70. doi: 10.1016/s0006-8993(02)02871-8. PMID: 12137918.

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1: Pulman J, Hutton JL, Marson AG. Tiagabine add-on for drug-resistant partial epilepsy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014 Feb 5;2:CD001908. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD001908.pub3. Review. PubMed PMID: 24500879.

2: Błaszczyk B. [Tiagabine--own experience in the refractory epilepsy treatment]. Wiad Lek. 2013;66(2 Pt 2):175-9. Review. Polish. PubMed PMID: 25775813.

3: Vasudev A, Macritchie K, Rao SK, Geddes J, Young AH. Tiagabine for acute affective episodes in bipolar disorder. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012 Dec 12;12:CD004694. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD004694.pub3. Review. PubMed PMID: 23235614.

4: Pulman J, Marson AG, Hutton JL. Tiagabine add-on for drug-resistant partial epilepsy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012 May 16;5:CD001908. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD001908.pub2. Review. Update in: Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014;2:CD001908. PubMed PMID: 22592677; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4058679.

5: Vasudev A, Macritchie K, Rao SN, Geddes J, Young AH. Tiagabine in the maintenance treatment of bipolar disorder. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011 Dec 7;(12):CD005173. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD005173.pub3. Review. PubMed PMID: 22161389.

6: Bentué-Ferrer D, Tribut O, Verdier MC; le groupe Suivi Thérapeutique Pharmacologique de la Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique. [Therapeutic drug monitoring of tiagabine]. Therapie. 2010 Jan-Feb;65(1):51-5. doi: 10.2515/therapie/2009065. Epub 2010 Mar 8. Review. French. PubMed PMID: 20205996.

7: Schwartz TL, Nihalani N. Tiagabine in anxiety disorders. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2006 Oct;7(14):1977-87. Review. PubMed PMID: 17020423.

8: Young AH, Geddes JR, Macritchie K, Rao SN, Vasudev A. Tiagabine in the maintenance treatment of bipolar disorders. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006 Jul 19;(3):CD005173. Review. Update in: Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011;(12):CD005173. PubMed PMID: 16856081.

9: Young AH, Geddes JR, Macritchie K, Rao SN, Watson S, Vasudev A. Tiagabine in the treatment of acute affective episodes in bipolar disorder: efficacy and acceptability. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006 Jul 19;(3):CD004694. Review. Update in: Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;12:CD004694. PubMed PMID: 16856056.

10: Spiller HA, Winter ML, Ryan M, Krenzelok EP, Anderson DL, Thompson M, Kumar S. Retrospective evaluation of tiagabine overdose. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2005;43(7):855-9. Review. PubMed PMID: 16440513.

11: Stahl SM. Anticonvulsants as anxiolytics, part 1: tiagabine and other anticonvulsants with actions on GABA. J Clin Psychiatry. 2004 Mar;65(3):291-2. Review. PubMed PMID: 15096065.

12: de Borchgrave V, Lienard F, Willemart T, van Rijckevorsel K. Clinical and EEG findings in six patients with altered mental status receiving tiagabine therapy. Epilepsy Behav. 2003 Jun;4(3):326-37. Review. PubMed PMID: 12791336.

13: Sills GJ. Pre-clinical studies with the GABAergic compounds vigabatrin and tiagabine. Epileptic Disord. 2003 Mar;5(1):51-6. Review. PubMed PMID: 12773297.

14: Angehagen M, Ben-Menachem E, Rönnbäck L, Hansson E. Novel mechanisms of action of three antiepileptic drugs, vigabatrin, tiagabine, and topiramate. Neurochem Res. 2003 Feb;28(2):333-40. Review. PubMed PMID: 12608706.

15: Casas-Fernández C, Domingo-Jiménez R. [Characteristics and indications of tiagabine]. Rev Neurol. 2002 Sep;35 Suppl 1:S96-S100. Review. Spanish. PubMed PMID: 12373661.

16: Pereira J, Marson AG, Hutton JL. Tiagabine add-on for drug-resistant partial epilepsy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002;(3):CD001908. Review. Update in: Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;5:CD001908. PubMed PMID: 12137637.

17: Kellinghaus C, Dziewas R, Lüdemann P. Tiagabine-related non-convulsive status epilepticus in partial epilepsy: three case reports and a review of the literature. Seizure. 2002 Jun;11(4):243-9. Review. PubMed PMID: 12027571.

18: Carta MG, Hardoy MC, Grunze H, Carpiniello B. The use of tiagabine in affective disorders. Pharmacopsychiatry. 2002 Jan;35(1):33-4. Review. PubMed PMID: 11819159.

19: Genton P, Guerrini R, Perucca E. Tiagabine in clinical practice. Epilepsia. 2001;42 Suppl 3:42-5. Review. PubMed PMID: 11520322.

20: Schachter SC. Pharmacology and clinical experience with tiagabine. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2001 Jan;2(1):179-87. Review. PubMed PMID: 11336578.

Additional Information

Related CAS#
CAS#145821-59-6 ( Tiagabine HCl salt).
CAS#115103-54-3 ( Tiagabine free base).