Xylometazoline Hydrochloride

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MedKoo CAT#: 318988

CAS#: 1218-35-5 (HCl)

Description: Xylometazoline, also known as xylomethazoline, is a drug which is used as a topical nasal decongestant. It is applied directly into the nose, either as a spray or as drops. The drug works by constricting the blood vessels in the nose. The decongestant effect is due to constriction of large veins in the nose which swell up during the inflammation of any infection or allergy of the nose. The smaller arteries are also constricted and this causes the colour of the nasal epithelium to be visibly paler after dosage. Xylometazoline is an imidazole derivative which is designed to mimic the molecular shape of adrenaline. It binds to alpha-adrenergic receptors in the nasal mucosa. Due to its sympathomimetic effects, it should not be used by people with high blood pressure, or other heart problems.

Chemical Structure

Xylometazoline Hydrochloride
CAS# 1218-35-5 (HCl)

Theoretical Analysis

MedKoo Cat#: 318988
Name: Xylometazoline Hydrochloride
CAS#: 1218-35-5 (HCl)
Chemical Formula: C16H25ClN2
Exact Mass: 0.00
Molecular Weight: 280.840
Elemental Analysis: C, 68.43; H, 8.97; Cl, 12.62; N, 9.98

Price and Availability

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1g USD 150
2g USD 250
5g USD 450
10g USD 750
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Related CAS #: 1218-35-5 (HCl)   526-36-3 (free base)  

Synonym: Xylometazoline HCl; xylomethazoline. Brand name: Otrivine; Amidrin; Balkis; Chlorohist-LA; Decongest; espa-rhin; Gelonasal.

IUPAC/Chemical Name: 2-[(4-tert-butyl-2,6-dimethylphenyl)methyl]-4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazole hydrochloride


InChi Code: InChI=1S/C16H24N2.ClH/c1-11-8-13(16(3,4)5)9-12(2)14(11)10-15-17-6-7-18-15;/h8-9H,6-7,10H2,1-5H3,(H,17,18);1H

SMILES Code: CC1=C(CC2=NCCN2)C(C)=CC(C(C)(C)C)=C1.[H]Cl

Appearance: White to off-white crystalline powder.

Purity: >98% (or refer to the Certificate of Analysis)

Shipping Condition: Shipped under ambient temperature as non-hazardous chemical. This product is stable enough for a few weeks during ordinary shipping and time spent in Customs.

Storage Condition: Dry, dark and at 0 - 4 C for short term (days to weeks) or -20 C for long term (months to years).

Solubility: Soluble in DMSO, not in water

Shelf Life: >2 years if stored properly

Drug Formulation: This drug may be formulated in DMSO

Stock Solution Storage: 0 - 4 C for short term (days to weeks), or -20 C for long term (months).

HS Tariff Code: 2934.99.9001

More Info:

Biological target:
In vitro activity:
In vivo activity:

Preparing Stock Solutions

The following data is based on the product molecular weight 280.84 Batch specific molecular weights may vary from batch to batch due to the degree of hydration, which will affect the solvent volumes required to prepare stock solutions.

Recalculate based on batch purity %
Concentration / Solvent Volume / Mass 1 mg 5 mg 10 mg
1 mM 1.15 mL 5.76 mL 11.51 mL
5 mM 0.23 mL 1.15 mL 2.3 mL
10 mM 0.12 mL 0.58 mL 1.15 mL
50 mM 0.02 mL 0.12 mL 0.23 mL
Formulation protocol:
In vitro protocol:
In vivo protocol:

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1: Musshoff F, Madea B, Woelfle J, Vlanic D. Xylometazoline poisoning: A 40-fold nasal overdose caused by a compounding error in 3 children. Forensic Sci Int. 2014 May;238:e3-5. doi: 10.1016/j.forsciint.2014.02.011. Epub 2014 Feb 20. PubMed PMID: 24642023.

2: Cingi C, Birdane L, Ural A, Oghan F, Bal C. Comparison of nasal hyperosmolar xylitol and xylometazoline solutions on quality of life in patients with inferior turbinate hypertrophy secondary to nonallergic rhinitis. Int Forum Allergy Rhinol. 2014 Jun;4(6):475-9. doi: 10.1002/alr.21311. Epub 2014 Feb 26. PubMed PMID: 24574278.

3: Han JS, Park SH, Shin YD, Kwon E, Shim WS, Bae JH. The effect of xylometazoline spray for expansion of nasal cavity. Korean J Anesthesiol. 2013 Aug;65(2):132-5. doi: 10.4097/kjae.2013.65.2.132. Epub 2013 Aug 27. PubMed PMID: 24023995; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3766778.

4: Figueiras-Graillet LM, Martínez-Sellés M, Perez-David E, Fernandez-Avilés F. Reversible cardiomyopathy due to chronic use of xylometazoline topical nasal spray. Int J Cardiol. 2013 Apr 5;164(2):e17-8. doi: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2012.09.136. Epub 2012 Oct 15. PubMed PMID: 23079093.

5: Kim JH, Oh YS, Ji JH, Bak H, Ahn SK. Rosacea (erythematotelangiectatic type) effectively improved by topical xylometazoline. J Dermatol. 2011 May;38(5):510-3. doi: 10.1111/j.1346-8138.2010.00999.x. Epub 2010 Nov 3. PubMed PMID: 21352348.

6: Tong JL. Xylometazoline pretreatment reduces nasotracheal intubation-related epistaxis in paediatric dental surgery. Br J Anaesth. 2011 Feb;106(2):279; author reply 279-80. doi: 10.1093/bja/aeq395. PubMed PMID: 21233119.

7: Leupold D, Wartenberg KE. Xylometazoline abuse induced ischemic stroke in a young adult. Neurologist. 2011 Jan;17(1):41-3. doi: 10.1097/NRL.0b013e3181d2ab04. PubMed PMID: 21192193.

8: Eskiizmir G, Hirçin Z, Ozyurt B, Unlü H. A comparative analysis of the decongestive effect of oxymetazoline and xylometazoline in healthy subjects. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2011 Jan;67(1):19-23. doi: 10.1007/s00228-010-0941-z. Epub 2010 Nov 11. PubMed PMID: 21069518.

9: El-Seify ZA, Khattab AM, Shaaban AA, Metwalli OS, Hassan HE, Ajjoub LF. Xylometazoline pretreatment reduces nasotracheal intubation-related epistaxis in paediatric dental surgery. Br J Anaesth. 2010 Oct;105(4):501-5. doi: 10.1093/bja/aeq205. Epub 2010 Aug 3. PubMed PMID: 20682569.

10: Cheung J, Goodman K, Bailey R, Fedorak R, Morse J, Millan M, Guzowski T, van Zanten SV; CANHelP working group. A randomized trial of topical anesthesia comparing lidocaine versus lidocaine plus xylometazoline for unsedated transnasal upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Can J Gastroenterol. 2010 May;24(5):317-21. PubMed PMID: 20485707; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2886574.

11: Eccles R, Martensson K, Chen SC. Effects of intranasal xylometazoline, alone or in combination with ipratropium, in patients with common cold. Curr Med Res Opin. 2010 Apr;26(4):889-99. doi: 10.1185/03007991003648015. Review. PubMed PMID: 20151787.

12: Haenisch B, Walstab J, Herberhold S, Bootz F, Tschaikin M, Ramseger R, Bönisch H. Alpha-adrenoceptor agonistic activity of oxymetazoline and xylometazoline. Fundam Clin Pharmacol. 2010 Dec;24(6):729-39. doi: 10.1111/j.1472-8206.2009.00805.x. PubMed PMID: 20030735.

13: Strandell B, Norgren-Holst E, Tran N, Jakobsen HB, Chen S. OTC use of a topical nasal spray solution containing xylometazoline plus ipratropium in patients with common cold. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2009 Dec;47(12):744-51. PubMed PMID: 19954713.

14: Nikolaidis E, Eleftheriadou A, Yiotakis I, Lazaris AC, Agrogianis G, Ferekidou E, Keramaris N, Papalois A, Kandiloros D. Influence of intranasal sterile isotonic sea water applications on xylometazoline administration: an experimental study in pigs. Auris Nasus Larynx. 2010 Feb;37(1):71-6. doi: 10.1016/j.anl.2009.03.006. Epub 2009 May 2. PubMed PMID: 19414231.

15: Graf P, Eccles R, Chen S. Efficacy and safety of intranasal xylometazoline and ipratropium in patients with common cold. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2009 Apr;10(5):889-908. doi: 10.1517/14656560902783051 . Review. Erratum in: Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2009 Jun;10(8):1387. PubMed PMID: 19351236.

16: Anand JS, Salamon M, Habrat B, Scinska A, Bienkowski P. Misuse of xylometazoline nasal drops by inhalation. Subst Use Misuse. 2008 Dec;43(14):2163-8. doi: 10.1080/10826080802344625. PubMed PMID: 19085441.

17: McCluney NA, Eng CY, Lee MS, McClymont LG. A comparison of xylometazoline (Otrivine) and phenylephrine/lignocaine mixture (Cophenylcaine) for the purposes of rigid nasendoscopy: a prospective, double-blind, randomised trial. J Laryngol Otol. 2009 Jun;123(6):626-30. doi: 10.1017/S0022215108003666. Epub 2008 Oct 13. PubMed PMID: 18847523.

18: Eccles R, Eriksson M, Garreffa S, Chen SC. The nasal decongestant effect of xylometazoline in the common cold. Am J Rhinol. 2008 Sep-Oct;22(5):491-6. doi: 10.2500/ajr.2008.22.3202. Epub 2008 Jul 24. PubMed PMID: 18655753.

19: Humphreys MR, Grant D, McKean SA, Eng CY, Townend J, Evans AS. Xylometazoline hydrochloride 0.1 per cent versus physiological saline in nasal surgical aftercare: a randomised, single-blinded, comparative clinical trial. J Laryngol Otol. 2009 Jan;123(1):85-90. doi: 10.1017/S002221510800217X. Epub 2008 Apr 11. PubMed PMID: 18405405.

20: van Velzen AG, van Riel AJ, Hunault C, van Riemsdijk TE, de Vries I, Meulenbelt J. A case series of xylometazoline overdose in children. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2007;45(3):290-4. PubMed PMID: 17453884.