Thymulin acetate hydrate

    WARNING: This product is for research use only, not for human or veterinary use.

MedKoo CAT#: 464330

CAS#: unknown

Description: Thymulin is a zinc-dependent metallopeptide hormone with immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic activities. It is primarily produced by thymic epithelial cells but can be produced by macrophages and fibroblasts when exposed to extracellular stressors, such as heat or oxidative stress. Thymulin potentiates mitogen-induced proliferation of IL-2 receptor-positive mature T cells. It reduces pro-inflammatory cytokine production in rodent models of LPS- or endotoxin-induced systemic inflammation, as well as prevents myocardial inflammation in a mouse model of encephalomyocarditis virus-induced myocarditis and suppresses autoantibody production in a mouse model of reovirus-induced thyroiditis. Thymulin (0.1, 0.5, and 1 µg, i.c.v.) prevents endotoxin-induced hyperalgesia in rats.

Chemical Structure

Thymulin acetate hydrate
CAS# unknown

Theoretical Analysis

MedKoo Cat#: 464330
Name: Thymulin acetate hydrate
CAS#: unknown
Chemical Formula: C35H60N12O18
Exact Mass: 936.4149
Molecular Weight: 936.931
Elemental Analysis: C, 44.87; H, 6.46; N, 17.94; O, 30.74

Price and Availability

Size Price Availability Quantity
1.0mg USD 210.0 2 Weeks
5.0mg USD 390.0 2 Weeks
10.0mg USD 630.0 2 Weeks
25.0mg USD 1040.0 2 Weeks
Bulk inquiry

Synonym: Thymulin acetate hydrate; Thymic Factor;

IUPAC/Chemical Name: ((S)-5-oxopyrrolidine-2-carbonyl)-L-alanyl-L-lysyl-L-seryl-L-glutaminylglycylglycyl-L-seryl-L-asparagine compound with acetic acid (1:1) hydrate


InChi Code: InChI=1S/C33H54N12O15.C2H4O2.H2O/c1-15(39-29(55)18-6-8-24(50)40-18)27(53)42-16(4-2-3-9-34)30(56)45-21(14-47)32(58)43-17(5-7-22(35)48)28(54)38-11-25(51)37-12-26(52)41-20(13-46)31(57)44-19(33(59)60)10-23(36)49;1-2(3)4;/h15-21,46-47H,2-14,34H2,1H3,(H2,35,48)(H2,36,49)(H,37,51)(H,38,54)(H,39,55)(H,40,50)(H,41,52)(H,42,53)(H,43,58)(H,44,57)(H,45,56)(H,59,60);1H3,(H,3,4);1H2/t15-,16-,17-,18-,19-,20-,21-;;/m0../s1

SMILES Code: NC(C[C@H](NC([C@@H](NC(CNC(CNC([C@@H](NC([C@@H](NC([C@@H](NC([C@@H](NC([C@@H]1CCC(N1)=O)=O)C)=O)CCCCN)=O)CO)=O)CCC(N)=O)=O)=O)=O)CO)=O)C(O)=O)=O.OC(C)=O.O

Appearance: Solid powder

Purity: >98% (or refer to the Certificate of Analysis)

Shipping Condition: Shipped under ambient temperature as non-hazardous chemical. This product is stable enough for a few weeks during ordinary shipping and time spent in Customs.

Storage Condition: Dry, dark and at 0 - 4 C for short term (days to weeks) or -20 C for long term (months to years).

Solubility: To be determined

Shelf Life: >2 years if stored properly

Drug Formulation: To be determined

Stock Solution Storage: 0 - 4 C for short term (days to weeks), or -20 C for long term (months).

HS Tariff Code: 2934.99.9001

Solubility Data

Solvent Max Conc. mg/mL Max Conc. mM
PBS (pH 7.2) 10.0

Preparing Stock Solutions

The following data is based on the product molecular weight 936.931 Batch specific molecular weights may vary from batch to batch due to the degree of hydration, which will affect the solvent volumes required to prepare stock solutions.

Recalculate based on batch purity %
Concentration / Solvent Volume / Mass 1 mg 5 mg 10 mg
1 mM 1.15 mL 5.76 mL 11.51 mL
5 mM 0.23 mL 1.15 mL 2.3 mL
10 mM 0.12 mL 0.58 mL 1.15 mL
50 mM 0.02 mL 0.12 mL 0.23 mL

Molarity Calculator

Calculate the mass, volume, or concentration required for a solution.

*When preparing stock solutions always use the batch-specific molecular weight of the product found on the vial label and SDS / CoA (available online).

Reconstitution Calculator

The reconstitution calculator allows you to quickly calculate the volume of a reagent to reconstitute your vial. Simply enter the mass of reagent and the target concentration and the calculator will determine the rest.


Dilution Calculator

Calculate the dilution required to prepare a stock solution.

1: Nasseri B, Zaringhalam J, Daniali S, Manaheji H, Abbasnejad Z, Nazemian V. Thymulin treatment attenuates inflammatory pain by modulating spinal cellular and molecular signaling pathways. Int Immunopharmacol. 2019 May;70:225-234. doi: 10.1016/j.intimp.2019.02.042. Epub 2019 Mar 6. PMID: 30851702.

2: Goya RG, Brown OA, Pléau JM, Dardenne M. Thymulin and the neuroendocrine system. Peptides. 2004 Jan;25(1):139-42. doi: 10.1016/j.peptides.2003.11.002. PMID: 15003367.

3: Reggiani PC, Schwerdt JI, Console GM, Roggero EA, Dardenne M, Goya RG. Physiology and therapeutic potential of the thymic peptide thymulin. Curr Pharm Des. 2014;20(29):4690-6. doi: 10.2174/1381612820666140130211157. PMID: 24588820.

4: Bach JF, Dardenne M. Thymulin, a zinc-dependent hormone. Med Oncol Tumor Pharmacother. 1989;6(1):25-9. doi: 10.1007/BF02985220. PMID: 2657247.

5: Novoselova EG, Lunin SM, Glushkova OV, Khrenov MO, Parfenyuk SB, Zakharova NM, Fesenko EE. Thymulin, free or bound to PBCA nanoparticles, protects mice against chronic septic inflammation. PLoS One. 2018 May 24;13(5):e0197601. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0197601. PMID: 29795607; PMCID: PMC5967805.

6: Safieh-Garabedian B, Nomikos M, Saadé N. Targeting inflammatory components in neuropathic pain: The analgesic effect of thymulin related peptide. Neurosci Lett. 2019 May 29;702:61-65. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2018.11.041. Epub 2018 Nov 29. PMID: 30503917.

7: Lunin SM, Khrenov MO, Glushkova OV, Vinogradova EV, Yashin VA, Fesenko EE, Novoselova EG. Extrathymic production of thymulin induced by oxidative stress, heat shock, apoptosis, or necrosis. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol. 2017 Mar;30(1):58-69. doi: 10.1177/0394632017694625. Epub 2017 Feb 1. PMID: 28281875; PMCID: PMC5806779.

8: Santos M, Henriques-Coelho T, Leite-Moreira A. Immunomodulatory role of thymulin in lung diseases. Expert Opin Ther Targets. 2010 Feb;14(2):131-41. doi: 10.1517/14728220903512991. PMID: 20055713.

9: Dardenne M, Saade N, Safieh-Garabedian B. Role of thymulin or its analogue as a new analgesic molecule. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2006 Nov;1088:153-63. doi: 10.1196/annals.1366.006. PMID: 17192563.

10: Reggiani PC, Morel GR, Cónsole GM, Barbeito CG, Rodriguez SS, Brown OA, Bellini MJ, Pléau JM, Dardenne M, Goya RG. The thymus-neuroendocrine axis: physiology, molecular biology, and therapeutic potential of the thymic peptide thymulin. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2009 Feb;1153:98-106. doi: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.2008.03964.x. PMID: 19236333; PMCID: PMC2688715.

11: Shankar AH, Prasad AS. Zinc and immune function: the biological basis of altered resistance to infection. Am J Clin Nutr. 1998 Aug;68(2 Suppl):447S-463S. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/68.2.447S. PMID: 9701160.

12: Pleau JM, Gastinel LN, Bach JF. Thymulin. Methods Enzymol. 1985;116:269-79. doi: 10.1016/s0076-6879(85)16021-0. PMID: 3878920.

13: Brown OA, Sosa YE, Bolognani F, Goya RG. Thymulin stimulates prolactin and thyrotropin release in an age-related manner. Mech Ageing Dev. 1998 Sep 1;104(3):249-62. doi: 10.1016/s0047-6374(98)00072-4. PMID: 9818729.

14: Reggiani PC, Poch B, Cónsole GM, Rimoldi OJ, Schwerdt JI, Tüngler V, Garcia- Bravo MM, Dardenne M, Goya RG. Thymulin-based gene therapy and pituitary function in animal models of aging. Neuroimmunomodulation. 2011;18(5):350-6. doi: 10.1159/000329495. Epub 2011 Sep 22. PMID: 21952687; PMCID: PMC3221262.

15: Zappa-Villar MF, López-León M, Pardo J, Costa M, Crespo R, Dardenne M, Goya RG, Reggiani PC. A new adenovector system for implementing thymulin gene therapy for inflammatory disorders. Mol Immunol. 2017 Jul;87:180-187. doi: 10.1016/j.molimm.2017.04.014. Epub 2017 May 11. PMID: 28501652.

16: Safieh-Garabedian B, Kendall MD, Khamashta MA, Hughes GR. Thymulin and its role in immunomodulation. J Autoimmun. 1992 Oct;5(5):547-55. doi: 10.1016/0896-8411(92)90152-g. PMID: 1418292.

17: Su S, Sun X, Zhou X, Fang F, Li Y. Effects of GnRH immunization on the reproductive axis and thymulin. J Endocrinol. 2015 Aug;226(2):93-102. doi: 10.1530/JOE-14-0720. Epub 2015 May 27. PMID: 26016747.

18: Safieh-Garabedian B, Kanaan SA, Jabbur SJ, Saadé NE. Cytokine-mediated or direct effects of thymulin on the nervous system as assessed by pain-related behavior. Neuroimmunomodulation. 1999 Jan-Apr;6(1-2):39-44. doi: 10.1159/000026362. PMID: 9876233.

19: Safieh-Garabedian B, Mayasi Y, Saadé NE. Targeting neuroinflammation for therapeutic intervention in neurodegenerative pathologies: a role for the peptide analogue of thymulin (PAT). Expert Opin Ther Targets. 2012 Nov;16(11):1065-73. doi: 10.1517/14728222.2012.714773. Epub 2012 Aug 4. PMID: 22861065.

20: Martines EV, Reggiani PC, Camihort G, Luna G, Zappa MF, Brown OA, Goya RG, Cónsole GM. The thymulin-lactotropic axis in rodents: thymectomy, immunoneutralization and gene transfer studies. Neuroimmunomodulation. 2013;20(5):256-63. doi: 10.1159/000346477. Epub 2013 Jul 9. PMID: 23941809.