WARNING: This product is for research use only, not for human or veterinary use.

MedKoo CAT#: 599242

CAS#: 120812-76-2

Description: Gemini is a herbicide.

Chemical Structure

CAS# 120812-76-2

Theoretical Analysis

MedKoo Cat#: 599242
Name: Gemini
CAS#: 120812-76-2
Chemical Formula: C24H25Cl3N6O8S
Exact Mass: 662.052
Molecular Weight: 663.9
Elemental Analysis: C, 43.42; H, 3.80; Cl, 16.02; N, 12.66; O, 19.28; S, 4.83

Price and Availability

This product is not in stock, which may be available by custom synthesis. For cost-effective reason, minimum order is 1g (price is usually high, lead time is 2~3 months, depending on the technical challenge). Quote less than 1g will not be provided. To request quote, please email to sales or click below button.
Note: Price will be listed if it is available in the future.

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Synonym: Gemini; Lorox plus;

IUPAC/Chemical Name: ethyl 2-(N-((4-chloro-6-methoxypyrimidin-2-yl)carbamoyl)sulfamoyl)benzoate compound with 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1-methoxy-1-methylurea (1:1)


InChi Code: InChI=1S/C15H15ClN4O6S.C9H10Cl2N2O2/c1-3-26-13(21)9-6-4-5-7-10(9)27(23,24)20-15(22)19-14-17-11(16)8-12(18-14)25-2;1-13(15-2)9(14)12-6-3-4-7(10)8(11)5-6/h4-8H,3H2,1-2H3,(H2,17,18,19,20,22);3-5H,1-2H3,(H,12,14)

SMILES Code: CN(C(Nc1ccc(Cl)c(Cl)c1)=O)OC.O=S(c2ccccc2C(OCC)=O)(NC(Nc3nc(OC)cc(Cl)n3)=O)=O

Appearance: Solid powder

Purity: >98% (or refer to the Certificate of Analysis)

Shipping Condition: Shipped under ambient temperature as non-hazardous chemical. This product is stable enough for a few weeks during ordinary shipping and time spent in Customs.

Storage Condition: Dry, dark and at 0 - 4 C for short term (days to weeks) or -20 C for long term (months to years).

Solubility: Soluble in DMSO

Shelf Life: >3 years if stored properly

Drug Formulation: This drug may be formulated in DMSO

Stock Solution Storage: 0 - 4 C for short term (days to weeks), or -20 C for long term (months).

HS Tariff Code: 2934.99.03.00

Preparing Stock Solutions

The following data is based on the product molecular weight 663.9 Batch specific molecular weights may vary from batch to batch due to the degree of hydration, which will affect the solvent volumes required to prepare stock solutions.

Recalculate based on batch purity %
Concentration / Solvent Volume / Mass 1 mg 5 mg 10 mg
1 mM 1.15 mL 5.76 mL 11.51 mL
5 mM 0.23 mL 1.15 mL 2.3 mL
10 mM 0.12 mL 0.58 mL 1.15 mL
50 mM 0.02 mL 0.12 mL 0.23 mL

Molarity Calculator

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Reconstitution Calculator

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Dilution Calculator

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1: Dong C, Badea I, Poorghorban M, Verrall R, Foldvari M. Impact of phospholipids on plasmid packaging and toxicity of gemini nanoparticles. J Mater Chem B. 2015 Dec 7;3(45):8806-8822. Epub 2015 Sep 29. PubMed PMID: 26693021; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4675353.

2: Vishvakarma VK, Kumari K, Patel R, Dixit VS, Singh P, Mehrotra GK, Chandra R, Chakrawarty AK. Theoretical model to investigate the alkyl chain and anion dependent interactions of gemini surfactant with bovine serum albumin. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc. 2015 May 15;143:319-23. doi: 10.1016/j.saa.2015.01.068. Epub 2015 Feb 14. PubMed PMID: 25766242.

3: Lam MC, Bressler B. Vedolizumab for ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease: results and implications of GEMINI studies. Immunotherapy. 2014;6(9):963-71. doi: 10.2217/imt.14.66. PubMed PMID: 25341118.

4: Hemp ST, Hudson AG, Allen MH Jr, Pole SS, Moore RB, Long TE. Solution properties and electrospinning of phosphonium gemini surfactants. Soft Matter. 2014 Jun 14;10(22):3970-7. doi: 10.1039/c4sm00271g. Epub 2014 Apr 14. PubMed PMID: 24733359.

5: Cardoso AM, Morais CM, Cruz AR, Silva SG, do Vale ML, Marques EF, de Lima MC, Jurado AS. New serine-derived gemini surfactants as gene delivery systems. Eur J Pharm Biopharm. 2015 Jan;89:347-56. doi: 10.1016/j.ejpb.2014.12.013. Epub 2014 Dec 13. PubMed PMID: 25513958.

6: Kawase T, Nakagawa M, Higuchi Y, Oida T. Novel Synthesis of Anionic Gemini Surfactants from 1, 4-Diol as a Key Block Material. J Oleo Sci. 2015;64(9):971-86. doi: 10.5650/jos.ess15109. PubMed PMID: 26329770.

7: Kawase T, Okada K, Oida T. Novel fluorinated gemini surfactants with γ-butyrolactone segments. J Oleo Sci. 2015;64(2):169-82. doi: 10.5650/jos.ess14193. Epub 2015 Jan 20. PubMed PMID: 25748377.

8: Amiri R, Bordbar AK, Laurents DV. Gemini surfactants affect the structure, stability, and activity of ribonuclease Sa. J Phys Chem B. 2014 Sep 11;118(36):10633-42. doi: 10.1021/jp504526f. Epub 2014 Aug 26. PubMed PMID: 25133582.

9: Zhao S, Huang G, An C, Wei J, Yao Y. Enhancement of soil retention for phenanthrene in binary cationic gemini and nonionic surfactant mixtures: characterizing two-step adsorption and partition processes through experimental and modeling approaches. J Hazard Mater. 2015 Apr 9;286:144-51. doi: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2014.12.044. Epub 2014 Dec 24. PubMed PMID: 25576782.

10: Canavero S. The "Gemini" spinal cord fusion protocol: Reloaded. Surg Neurol Int. 2015 Feb 3;6:18. doi: 10.4103/2152-7806.150674. eCollection 2015. PubMed PMID: 25709855; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4322377.

11: Tehrani-Bagha AR, Holmberg K, van Ginkel CG, Kean M. Cationic gemini surfactants with cleavable spacer: chemical hydrolysis, biodegradation, and toxicity. J Colloid Interface Sci. 2015 Jul 1;449:72-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jcis.2014.09.072. Epub 2014 Oct 7. PubMed PMID: 25446957.

12: Song Y, Han J, Feng R, Wang M, Tian Q, Zhang T, Liu X, Cheng X, Deng Y. The 12-3-12 cationic gemini surfactant as a novel gastrointestinal bioadhesive material for improving the oral bioavailability of coenzyme Q10 naked nanocrystals. Drug Dev Ind Pharm. 2016 Dec;42(12):2044-2054. Epub 2016 Jul 3. PubMed PMID: 27309590.

13: Garcia MT, Kaczerewska O, Ribosa I, Brycki B, Materna P, Drgas M. Biodegradability and aquatic toxicity of quaternary ammonium-based gemini surfactants: Effect of the spacer on their ecological properties. Chemosphere. 2016 Jul;154:155-160. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2016.03.109. Epub 2016 Apr 2. PubMed PMID: 27045632.

14: Shi L, Chen F, Sun N, Zheng L. Gemini supra-amphiphiles with finely-controlled self-assemblies. Soft Matter. 2015 May 28;11(20):4075-80. doi: 10.1039/c5sm00658a. Epub 2015 Apr 24. PubMed PMID: 25909965.

15: Donkuru M, Michel D, Awad H, Katselis G, El-Aneed A. Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry quantitative method for the cellular analysis of varying structures of gemini surfactants designed as nanomaterial drug carriers. J Chromatogr A. 2016 May 13;1446:114-24. doi: 10.1016/j.chroma.2016.04.013. Epub 2016 Apr 5. PubMed PMID: 27086283.

16: Zhao YN, Qureshi F, Zhang SB, Cui SH, Wang B, Chen HY, Lv HT, Zhang SF, Huang L. Novel gemini cationic lipids with carbamate groups for gene delivery. J Mater Chem B. 2014 May 21;2(19):2920-2928. PubMed PMID: 25045521; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4100725.

17: Wang G, Kang Y, Tang B, Zhang X. Tuning the surface activity of gemini amphiphile by the host-guest interaction of cucurbit[7]uril. Langmuir. 2015 Jan 13;31(1):120-4. doi: 10.1021/la504410q. Epub 2014 Dec 23. PubMed PMID: 25489870.

18: Singh J, Michel D, Getson HM, Chitanda JM, Verrall RE, Badea I. Development of amino acid substituted gemini surfactant-based mucoadhesive gene delivery systems for potential use as noninvasive vaginal genetic vaccination. Nanomedicine (Lond). 2015 Feb;10(3):405-17. doi: 10.2217/nnm.14.123. PubMed PMID: 25707975.

19: Zhang S, Ding S, Yu J, Chen X, Lei Q, Fang W. Antibacterial Activity, in Vitro Cytotoxicity, and Cell Cycle Arrest of Gemini Quaternary Ammonium Surfactants. Langmuir. 2015 Nov 10;31(44):12161-9. doi: 10.1021/acs.langmuir.5b01430. Epub 2015 Oct 26. PubMed PMID: 26474336.

20: Kim HC, Kim E, Ha TL, Jeong SW, Lee SG, Lee SJ, Lee B. Thiol-responsive gemini poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(lactide) with a cystine disulfide spacer as an intracellular drug delivery nanocarrier. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces. 2015 Mar 1;127:206-12. doi: 10.1016/j.colsurfb.2015.01.039. Epub 2015 Jan 31. PubMed PMID: 25679493.