Paraquat dichloride
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MedKoo CAT#: 591416

CAS#: 1910-42-5

Description: Paraquat dichloride is a poisonous dipyridilium compound used as contact herbicide. Contact with concentrated solutions causes irritation of the skin, cracking and shedding of the nails, and delayed healing of cuts and wounds.


Price and Availability

Size Price Shipping out time Quantity
500mg USD 300 2 Weeks
Inquire bulk and customized quantity

Pricing updated 2020-07-12. Prices are subject to change without notice.

Paraquat dichloride, purity > 98%, is in stock. Current shipping out time is about 2 weeks after order is received. CoA, QC data and MSDS documents are available in one week after order is received.


Chemical Structure

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Theoretical Analysis

MedKoo Cat#: 591416
Name: Paraquat dichloride
CAS#: 1910-42-5
Chemical Formula: C12H14Cl2N2
Exact Mass: 256.0534
Molecular Weight: 257.16
Elemental Analysis: C, 56.05; H, 5.49; Cl, 27.57; N, 10.89


Synonym: Paraquat dichloride; NSC 263500; NSC-263500; NSC263500

IUPAC/Chemical Name: 4,4'-Bipyridinium, 1,1'-dimethyl-, dichloride

InChi Key: FIKAKWIAUPDISJ-UHFFFAOYSA-L

InChi Code: InChI=1S/C12H14N2.2ClH/c1-13-7-3-11(4-8-13)12-5-9-14(2)10-6-12;;/h3-10H,1-2H3;2*1H/q+2;;/p-2

SMILES Code: C[N+]1=CC=C(C2=CC=[N+](C)C=C2)C=C1.[Cl-].[Cl-]


Technical Data

Appearance:
Solid powder

Purity:
>98% (or refer to the Certificate of Analysis)

Shipping Condition:
Shipped under ambient temperature as non-hazardous chemical. This product is stable enough for a few weeks during ordinary shipping and time spent in Customs.

Storage Condition:
Dry, dark and at 0 - 4 C for short term (days to weeks) or -20 C for long term (months to years).

Solubility:
Soluble in DMSO

Shelf Life:
>2 years if stored properly

Drug Formulation:
This drug may be formulated in DMSO

Stock Solution Storage:
0 - 4 C for short term (days to weeks), or -20 C for long term (months).

HS Tariff Code:
2934.99.9001


References

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2: Tajai P, Fedeles BI, Suriyo T, Navasumrit P, Kanitwithayanun J, Essigmann JM, Satayavivad J. An engineered cell line lacking OGG1 and MUTYH glycosylases implicates the accumulation of genomic 8-oxoguanine as the basis for paraquat mutagenicity. Free Radic Biol Med. 2018 Feb 20;116:64-72. doi: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2017.12.035. Epub 2017 Dec 28. PubMed PMID: 29289706; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5902796.

3: Lohitnavy M, Chitsakhon A, Jomprasert K, Lohitnavy O, Reisfeld B. Development of a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model of paraquat. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2017 Jul;2017:2732-2735. doi: 10.1109/EMBC.2017.8037422. PubMed PMID: 29060463.

4: de Oliveira Souza A, Couto-Lima CA, Rosa Machado MC, Espreafico EM, Pinheiro Ramos RG, Alberici LC. Protective action of Omega-3 on paraquat intoxication in Drosophila melanogaster. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2017;80(19-21):1050-1063. doi: 10.1080/15287394.2017.1357345. Epub 2017 Aug 29. PubMed PMID: 28849990.

5: Sandström J, Broyer A, Zoia D, Schilt C, Greggio C, Fournier M, Do KQ, Monnet-Tschudi F. Potential mechanisms of development-dependent adverse effects of the herbicide paraquat in 3D rat brain cell cultures. Neurotoxicology. 2017 May;60:116-124. doi: 10.1016/j.neuro.2017.04.010. Epub 2017 Apr 30. PubMed PMID: 28467894.

6: Smeyne RJ, Breckenridge CB, Beck M, Jiao Y, Butt MT, Wolf JC, Zadory D, Minnema DJ, Sturgess NC, Travis KZ, Cook AR, Smith LL, Botham PA. Assessment of the Effects of MPTP and Paraquat on Dopaminergic Neurons and Microglia in the Substantia Nigra Pars Compacta of C57BL/6 Mice. PLoS One. 2016 Oct 27;11(10):e0164094. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0164094. eCollection 2016. PubMed PMID: 27788145; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5082881.

7: Mo HH, Kim Y, Lee YS, Bae YJ, Khim JS, Cho K. Burrowing mayfly Ephemera orientalis (Ephemeroptera: Ephemeridae) as a new test species for pesticide toxicity. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2016 Sep;23(18):18766-76. doi: 10.1007/s11356-016-7088-0. Epub 2016 Jun 17. PubMed PMID: 27316648.

8: Prazdnova EV, Chistyakov VA, Churilov MN, Mazanko MS, Bren AB, Volski A, Chikindas ML. DNA-protection and antioxidant properties of fermentates from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens B-1895 and Bacillus subtilis KATMIRA1933. Lett Appl Microbiol. 2015 Dec;61(6):549-54. doi: 10.1111/lam.12491. Epub 2015 Nov 2. PubMed PMID: 26370336.

9: Jang YJ, Won JH, Back MJ, Fu Z, Jang JM, Ha HC, Hong S, Chang M, Kim DK. Paraquat Induces Apoptosis through a Mitochondria-Dependent Pathway in RAW264.7 Cells. Biomol Ther (Seoul). 2015 Sep;23(5):407-13. doi: 10.4062/biomolther.2015.075. Epub 2015 Sep 1. PubMed PMID: 26336579; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4556199.

10: Gales L, Amorim R, Afonso CM, Carvalho F, Dinis-Oliveira RJ. Decreasing the toxicity of paraquat through the complexation with sodium salicylate: Stoichiometric analysis. Toxicology. 2015 Oct 2;336:96-8. doi: 10.1016/j.tox.2015.08.005. Epub 2015 Aug 20. PubMed PMID: 26298007.

11: Deng L, Li G, Rao B, Li H. Central nervous system-specific knockout of Brg1 causes growth retardation and neuronal degeneration. Brain Res. 2015 Oct 5;1622:186-95. doi: 10.1016/j.brainres.2015.06.027. Epub 2015 Jun 30. PubMed PMID: 26133793.

12: Wang J, Lu S, Zheng Q, Hu N, Yu W, Li N, Liu M, Gao B, Zhang G, Zhang Y, Wang H. Cardiac-Specific Knockout of ETA Receptor Mitigates Paraquat-Induced Cardiac Contractile Dysfunction. Cardiovasc Toxicol. 2016 Jul;16(3):235-43. doi: 10.1007/s12012-015-9331-1. PubMed PMID: 26089164.

13: Gómez-Marroquín M, Vidales LE, Debora BN, Santos-Escobar F, Obregón-Herrera A, Robleto EA, Pedraza-Reyes M. Role of Bacillus subtilis DNA Glycosylase MutM in Counteracting Oxidatively Induced DNA Damage and in Stationary-Phase-Associated Mutagenesis. J Bacteriol. 2015 Jun;197(11):1963-71. doi: 10.1128/JB.00147-15. Epub 2015 Mar 30. PubMed PMID: 25825434; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4420911.

14: Macri C, Wang F, Tasset I, Schall N, Page N, Briand JP, Cuervo AM, Muller S. Modulation of deregulated chaperone-mediated autophagy by a phosphopeptide. Autophagy. 2015;11(3):472-86. doi: 10.1080/15548627.2015.1017179. PubMed PMID: 25719862; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4502742.

15: Ikpesu TO. Assessment of occurrence and concentrations of paraquat dichloride in water, sediments and fish from Warri River Basin, Niger Delta, Nigeria. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2015 Jun;22(11):8517-25. doi: 10.1007/s11356-014-3993-2. Epub 2014 Dec 30. PubMed PMID: 25548014.

16: Pei YH, Cai XM, Chen J, Sun BD, Sun ZR, Wang X, Qian XM. The role of p38 MAPK in acute paraquat-induced lung injury in rats. Inhal Toxicol. 2014 Dec;26(14):880-4. doi: 10.3109/08958378.2014.970784. Epub 2014 Oct 30. PubMed PMID: 25357233.

17: Lu X, Kim H, Zhong S, Chen H, Hu Z, Zhou B. De novo transcriptome assembly for rudimentary leaves in Litchi chinesis Sonn. and identification of differentially expressed genes in response to reactive oxygen species. BMC Genomics. 2014 Sep 20;15:805. doi: 10.1186/1471-2164-15-805. PubMed PMID: 25239404; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4190417.

18: Chang FP, Chen YP, Mou CY. Intracellular implantation of enzymes in hollow silica nanospheres for protein therapy: cascade system of superoxide dismutase and catalase. Small. 2014 Nov;10(22):4785-95. doi: 10.1002/smll.201401559. Epub 2014 Aug 26. PubMed PMID: 25160910.

19: Maher TJ, Ren Y, Li Q, Braunlin E, Garry MG, Sorrentino BP, Martin CM. ATP-binding cassette transporter Abcg2 lineage contributes to the cardiac vasculature after oxidative stress. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2014 Jun 15;306(12):H1610-8. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00638.2013. Epub 2014 Apr 11. PubMed PMID: 24727496; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4059980.

20: Raghu K, Mahesh V, Sasidhar P, Reddy PR, Venkataramaniah V, Agrawal A. Paraquat poisoning: A case report and review of literature. J Family Community Med. 2013 Sep;20(3):198-200. doi: 10.4103/2230-8229.122023. PubMed PMID: 24672279; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3957175.