WARNING: This product is for research use only, not for human or veterinary use.

MedKoo CAT#: 329483

CAS#: 77858-21-0

Description: Velaresol, also known as BW12C or BW12C79, is a oxyhaemoglobin stabilizer. Velaresol stabilizes oxyhaemoglobin also protect sickle cells against calcium-mediated dehydration.Velaresol causes a reversible left-shift of the oxygen saturation curve (OSC) and tissue hypoxia.

Chemical Structure

CAS# 77858-21-0

Theoretical Analysis

MedKoo Cat#: 329483
Name: Velaresol
CAS#: 77858-21-0
Chemical Formula: C12H14O5
Exact Mass: 238.08
Molecular Weight: 238.239
Elemental Analysis: C, 60.50; H, 5.92; O, 33.58

Price and Availability

Size Price Availability Quantity
100mg USD 950
200mg USD 1450
500mg USD 2150
1g USD 3250
2g USD 4650
5g USD 6750
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Synonym: Velaresol; BW 12C79; BW-12C79; BW12C79; BW 12C; BW-12C; BW12C.

IUPAC/Chemical Name: 5-(2-formyl-3-hydroxyphenoxy)pentanoic acid


InChi Code: InChI=1S/C12H14O5/c13-8-9-10(14)4-3-5-11(9)17-7-2-1-6-12(15)16/h3-5,8,14H,1-2,6-7H2,(H,15,16)


Appearance: Yellow solid powder

Purity: >98% (or refer to the Certificate of Analysis)

Shipping Condition: Shipped under ambient temperature as non-hazardous chemical. This product is stable enough for a few weeks during ordinary shipping and time spent in Customs.

Storage Condition: Dry, dark and at 0 - 4 C for short term (days to weeks) or -20 C for long term (months to years).

Solubility: Soluble in DMSO

Shelf Life: >2 years if stored properly

Drug Formulation: This drug may be formulated in DMSO

Stock Solution Storage: 0 - 4 C for short term (days to weeks), or -20 C for long term (months).

HS Tariff Code: 2934.99.9001

More Info:

Biological target:
In vitro activity:
In vivo activity:

Preparing Stock Solutions

The following data is based on the product molecular weight 238.24 Batch specific molecular weights may vary from batch to batch due to the degree of hydration, which will affect the solvent volumes required to prepare stock solutions.

Recalculate based on batch purity %
Concentration / Solvent Volume / Mass 1 mg 5 mg 10 mg
1 mM 1.15 mL 5.76 mL 11.51 mL
5 mM 0.23 mL 1.15 mL 2.3 mL
10 mM 0.12 mL 0.58 mL 1.15 mL
50 mM 0.02 mL 0.12 mL 0.23 mL
Formulation protocol:
In vitro protocol:
In vivo protocol:

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1: Philip PA, Thompson CH, Carmichael J, Rea D, Mitchell K, Taylor DJ, Stuart NS, Dennis I, Rajagopalan B, Ganesan T, et al. A phase I study of the left-shifting agent BW12C79 plus mitomycin C and the effect on the skeletal muscle metabolism using 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Cancer Res. 1993 Dec 1;53(23):5649-53. PubMed PMID: 8242619.

2: Trudel M, De Paepe ME, Chrétien N, Saadane N, Jacmain J, Sorette M, Hoang T, Beuzard Y. Sickle cell disease of transgenic SAD mice. Blood. 1994 Nov 1;84(9):3189-97. PubMed PMID: 7949191.

3: Gibson JS, Khan A, Speake PF, Ellory JC. O2 dependence of K+ transport in sickle cells: the effect of different cell populations and the substituted benzaldehyde 12C79. FASEB J. 2001 Mar;15(3):823-32. PubMed PMID: 11259401.

4: Propper DJ, Levitt NC, O'Byrne K, Braybrooke JP, Talbot DC, Ganesan TS, Thompson CH, Rajagopalan B, Littlewood TJ, Dixon RM, Harris AL. Phase II study of the oxygen saturation curve left shifting agent BW12C in combination with the hypoxia activated drug mitomycin C in advanced colorectal cancer. Br J Cancer. 2000 Jun;82(11):1776-82. PubMed PMID: 10839290; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2363221.

5: Muzyamba MC, Speake PF, Gibson JS. Oxidants and regulation of K(+)-Cl(-) cotransport in equine red blood cells. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2000 Oct;279(4):C981-9. PubMed PMID: 11003578.

6: Gibson JS, Speake PF, Ellory JC. Effect of the substituted benzaldehyde 12C79 on Cl--dependent K+ influx in human red blood cells. Pflugers Arch. 1999 Feb;437(3):498-500. PubMed PMID: 9914409.

7: Keidan AJ, Sowter MC, Johnson CS, Marwah SS, Stuart J. Pharmacological modification of oxygen affinity improves deformability of deoxygenated sickle erythrocytes: a possible therapeutic approach to sickle cell disease. Clin Sci (Lond). 1989 Apr;76(4):357-62. PubMed PMID: 2714049.

8: Wootton R, Stammers DK, White RD. Reduction in potency and reversal of left-shifting activity of BW12C with the major and minor components of chicken hemoglobin. FEBS Lett. 1986 Dec 1;209(1):129-33. PubMed PMID: 3803572.

9: Stevens G, Hill SA, Joiner MC, Joiner B, Johns H, Williams K, Denekamp J, Nethersell AB. The effect of BW12C on the radiosensitivity and necrosis of murine tissues and tumours. Australas Radiol. 1994 Aug;38(3):199-203. PubMed PMID: 7945114.

10: Falk SJ, Ramsay JR, Ward R, Miles K, Dixon AK, Bleehen NM. BW12C perturbs normal and tumour tissue oxygenation and blood flow in man. Radiother Oncol. 1994 Sep;32(3):210-7. PubMed PMID: 7816940.

11: Stuart J, Mojiminiyi FB, Stone PC, Culliford SJ, Ellory JC. Additive in vitro effects of anti-sickling drugs. Br J Haematol. 1994 Apr;86(4):820-3. PubMed PMID: 7918079.

12: Dennis IF, Ramsay JR, Workman P, Bleehen NM. Pharmacokinetics of BW12C and mitomycin C, given in combination in a phase 1 study in patients with advanced gastrointestinal cancer. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 1993;32(1):67-72. PubMed PMID: 8462126.

13: Horsman MR, Overgaard J. BW12C-induced changes in haemoglobin-oxygen affinity in mice and its influence on the radiation response of a C3H mouse mammary carcinoma. Radiother Oncol. 1992 Sep;25(1):43-8. PubMed PMID: 1410589.

14: van Rhee F, Ware I, Littlewood T. Abnormal haemoglobin electrophoresis caused by BW 12C. J Clin Pathol. 1992 Oct;45(10):930. PubMed PMID: 1430268; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC495072.

15: Stone PC, Nash GB, Stuart J. Substituted benzaldehydes (12C79 and 589C80) that stabilize oxyhaemoglobin also protect sickle cells against calcium-mediated dehydration. Br J Haematol. 1992 Jul;81(3):419-23. PubMed PMID: 1390217.

16: Ramsay JR, Bleehen NM, Dennis I, Workman P, Ward R, Falk SJ, Bedford P, Wootton R, Nethersell AB. Phase I study of BW12C in combination with mitomycin C in patients with advanced gastrointestinal cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1992;22(4):721-5. PubMed PMID: 1544845.

17: Bremner JC, Counsell CJ, Edwards HS, Stratford IJ, Adams GE, Nethersell AB, Bedford P. Monitoring metabolic responses after induction of hypoxia in the KHT tumour using 31P NMR spectroscopy. Int J Radiat Biol. 1991 Jul-Aug;60(1-2):363-7. PubMed PMID: 1677995.

18: van den Aardweg GJ, Hopewell JW, Adams GE, Barnes DW, Sansom JM, Stratford IJ, Nethersell AB. Protection of pig epidermis against radiation-induced damage by the infusion of BW12C. Int J Radiat Biol. 1991 Apr;59(4):1039-51. PubMed PMID: 1674270.

19: Cole S, Robbins L. Manipulation of oxygenation in a human tumour xenograft with BW12C or hydralazine: effects on responses to radiation and to the bioreductive cytotoxicity of misonidazole or RSU-1069. Radiother Oncol. 1989 Nov;16(3):235-43. PubMed PMID: 2587812.

20: van den Aardweg GJ, Hopewell JW, Barnes DW, Sansom JM, Nethersell AB. Modification of the radiation response of pig skin by manipulation of tissue oxygen tension using anesthetics and administration of BW12C. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1989 May;16(5):1191-4. PubMed PMID: 2715070.