WARNING: This product is for research use only, not for human or veterinary use.
MedKoo CAT#: 329670
CAS#: 357-08-4 (HCl)
Description: Naloxone is a μ-opioid receptor (MOR) inverse agonist. Naloxone has an extremely high affinity for μ-opioid receptors in the central nervous system (CNS). Its rapid blockade of those receptors often produces rapid onset of withdrawal symptoms. Naloxone also has an antagonist action, though with a lower affinity, at κ- (KOR) and δ-opioid receptors (DOR). The mechanism of action is not completely understood, but studies suggest it functions to produce withdrawal symptoms by competing for opiate receptor sites within the CNS (a competitive antagonist, not a direct agonist), thereby preventing the action of both endogenous and xenobiotic opiates on these receptors without directly producing any effects itself. Naloxone was approved for opioid overdose by the Food and Drug Administration in 1971
MedKoo Cat#: 329670
Name: Naloxone HCl
CAS#: 357-08-4 (HCl)
Chemical Formula: C19H22ClNO4
Molecular Weight: 363.838
Elemental Analysis: C, 62.72; H, 6.10; Cl, 9.74; N, 3.85; O, 17.59
Synonym: Naloxone HCl; EN-15304; EN15304; EN 15304; NIH7890; Naloxone hydrochloride; Narcan; Narcanti; Nalonee;
IUPAC/Chemical Name: (4R,4aS,7aR,12bS)-3-allyl-4a,9-dihydroxy-2,3,4,4a,5,6-hexahydro-1H-4,12-methanobenzofuro[3,2-e]isoquinolin-7(7aH)-one hydrochloride
InChi Key: RGPDIGOSVORSAK-STHHAXOLSA-N
InChi Code: InChI=1S/C19H21NO4.ClH/c1-2-8-20-9-7-18-15-11-3-4-12(21)16(15)24-17(18)13(22)5-6-19(18,23)14(20)10-11;/h2-4,14,17,21,23H,1,5-10H2;1H/t14-,17+,18+,19-;/m1./s1
SMILES Code: O=C1[C@@](OC2=C(O)C=CC3=C24)([H])[C@@]54CCN(CC=C)[C@@](C3)([H])[C@]5(O)CC1.[H]Cl
Naloxone was patented in 1961 and approved for opioid overdose by the Food and Drug Administration in 1971. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. Naloxone is available as a generic medication. Its wholesale price in the developing world is between US$0.50 and 5.30 per dose. The vials of medication are not very expensive (less than 25 USD) in the United States. The price for a package of two auto-injectors in the US, however, has increased from $690 in 2014 to $4,500 in 2016.
The Ki affinity values of (−)-naloxone for the MOR, KOR, and DOR have been reported as 0.559 nM, 4.91 nM, and 36.5 nM, respectively, whereas for (+)-naloxone, 3,550 nM, 8,950 nM, and 122,000 nM, respectively, have been reported. As such, (−)-naloxone appears to be the active isomer. Moreover, these data suggest that naloxone binds to the MOR with approximately 9-fold greater affinity relative to the KOR and around 60-fold greater affinity relative to the DOR.